Table of Contents Introduction During his lifetime, Rene Descartes was known throughout Europe as a leading contemporary scientist. He developed one of the most plausible versions of the new mechanistic, mathematical accounts of the world and used it to provide thorough explanations in the fields of optics, cosmology, physics, physiology, and biology. Within only a few decades of his death, Descartes' scientific system was all but forgotten, eclipsed by the far superior mechanistic, mathematical science proposed by Sir Isaac Newton. Yet, despite the quick downfall of his scientific system, Descartes remains one of the most widely read thinkers of any age.
The town of La Haye, which lies 47 kilometers south of Tours, has subsequently been renamed Descartes. When Descartes was thirteen and one-half months old, his mother, Jeanne Brochard, died in childbirth.
But he did not neglect his birth place in La Haye: He followed the usual course of studies, which included five or six years of grammar school, including Latin and Greek grammar, classical poets, and Cicero, followed by three years of philosophy curriculum.
By rule, the Jesuit philosophy curriculum followed Aristotle; it was divided into the then-standard topics of logic, morals, physics, and metaphysics. The Jesuits also included mathematics in the final three years of study. Aristotle's philosophy was approached through textbook presentations and commentaries on Aristotle's works.
Aristotle himself frequently discussed the positions of his ancient predecessors. The most extensive commentaries also elaborated in some detail on positions other than Aristotle's.
Within this framework, and taking into account the reading of Cicero, Descartes would have been exposed in school to the doctrines of the ancient atomists, Plato, and the Stoics, and he would have heard of the skeptics.
Hence, although scholastic Aristotelian philosophy was dominant in his school years, it was not the only type of philosophy that he knew. His family wanted Descartes to be a lawyer, like his father and many other relatives.
To this end, he went to Poitiers to study law, obtaining a degree in But he never practiced law or entered into the governmental service such practice would make possible Rodis-Lewis18— Instead, he became a gentleman soldier, moving in to Breda, to support the Protestant Prince Maurice against the Catholic parts of the Netherlands which parts later formed Belgiumwhich were controlled by Spain—a Catholic land, like France, but at this point an enemy.
Beeckman set various problems for Descartes, including questions about falling bodies, hydrostatics, and mathematical problems. Since antiquity, mathematics had been applied to various physical subject matters, in optics, astronomy, mechanics focusing on the leverand hydrostatics.
Beeckman and Descartes brought to this work a commitment to atoms as the basic constituents of matter; as had ancient atomists, they attributed not only size, shape, and motion but also weight to those atoms At this time, Descartes discovered and conveyed to Beeckman the fundamental insight that makes analytic geometry possible: Descartes himself did not foresee replacing geometrical constructions with algebraic formulas; rather, he viewed geometry as the basic mathematical science and he considered his algebraic techniques to provide a powerful alternative to actual compass-and-ruler constructions when the latter became too intricate.
Descartes attended the coronation and was returning to the army when winter caught him in the small town of Ulm or perhaps Neuburgnot far from Munich. On the night of November 10,Descartes had three dreams that seemed to provide him with a mission in life.
The dreams themselves are interesting and complex see Sebba Descartes took from them the message that he should set out to reform all knowledge.
He decided to begin with philosophy, since the principles of the other sciences must be derived from it 6: Descartes was familiar with both mainstream philosophy and recent innovators those who, among other things, rejected aspects of Aristotle's philosophyincluding reading that he did from on.
Descartes' Discourse marks a watershed in European thought; in it, the author sets out in brief his radical new philosophy, which begins with a proof of the existence of the self (the famous "cogito ergo sum").5/5(5). René Descartes (/ d e used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution. Descartes refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers. He frequently set his views apart from those of his predecessors. A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. New. An Analysis and an Introduction to the Philosophy of Ren Descartes. words. 1 page. An Analysis and an Introduction to the Hobbes' Version of the Social Contract. words. 1 page. An Analysis of the Republic by Plato. words.
Inhe recalled 3: Francisco Toledo —96Antonio Rubio —and the Coimbran commentators active ca. Inhe recalled having read Thomas Campanella's De Sensu Rerum about fifteen years before, and not being much impressed 2: And in he was able to rattle off the names of recent innovators in philosophy 1: Descartes' activities during the early s are not well-documented.
He was in France part of the time, visiting Poitou to sell some inherited properties in and visiting Paris. He went to Italy — Upon his return he lived in Paris, where he was in touch with mathematicians and natural philosophers in the circle of his long-time friend and correspondent Marin Mersenne — While in Paris, he worked on some mathematical problems and derived the sine law of refraction, which facilitated his work on formulating mathematically the shapes of lenses later published in the Dioptrics.Rene Descartes the Father of Modern Philosophy.
Rene Descartes the Father of Modern Philosophy Ren the creation of a logical and sustainable society. This society is the commonwealth and led by a sovereign. Upon first analysis, Introduction Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were both natural law theorists and social contracts .
René Descartes (/ d e used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution.
Descartes refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers. He frequently set his views apart from those of his predecessors. A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. New Died: 11 February (aged 53), Stockholm, Swedish Empire. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes Meditations on First Philosophy Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays.
Descartes' Discourse marks a watershed in European thought; in it, the author sets out in brief his radical new philosophy, which begins with a proof of the existence of the self (the famous "cogito ergo sum").5/5(5).
Ren Descartes major work an analysis of richard corys narration edwin arlington robinson on scientific method was the Discourse that was published in (more An analysis of the homosexual marriage in the united states fully: Discourse on the. René Descartes, also known as Renatus Cartesius (Latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer.
He has been dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy," and much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which continue to be studied closely/5(K).