Quoting in MLA Format Avoid plagiarism, use works cited research paper Plagiarism is a serious offense in any academic institution.
Some really goofy schemes and scams Magnetism is a mysterious phenomenon to most people, and even many of us who have taken a few courses in college physics often don't feel we really "understand" it. In the 19th century, hucksters and scam artists were taking advantage of the public's ignorance of magnetism by offering fraudulent magnetic products to treat everything from baldness to impotence, and an even wider variety of magical wonders are being hawked over the Internet nowadays.
The purpose of this Web page is to examine the scientific validity of the claims for magnetic products, especially those related to water, in order to help counter some of the sales hype that is rampant in this field and has given it something of a bad name.
Many of these claims relate to scientific principles that are frequently mis-stated or are simply wrong, but which may not be recognized as such by those whose command of chemistry and physics is lacking. It is hoped that this information will help consumers to make their own informed decisions about the validity of these products.
Magnetic water softening and scale control There is a long history of the promotion of magnets to alleviate the "hardness" of mineral-containing waters, and particularly to control the deposition of scale in teapots, plumbing systems, evaporators, and boilers. There are now a large variety of devices on the market that claim to reduce scale deposition, and some claim to "soften" the water as well.
The earlier devices mostly employed permanent magnets, but many now use alternating magnetic or electrostatic fields. The magnetic field surrounds the pipe at some point and penetrates it from all sides.
This obviously limits its use to non-ferrous pipes such as copper or plastic. Although magnetic water treatment MWT products have been promoted since the 's, they have not received very wide acceptance within the engineering community, and the question of whether or not they are effective is still very much open.
The widespread marketing of MWT products to consumers Citing survey mla research papers the Internet has done little to settle the issue. These carbonates, unlike most salts, have solubilities that decrease at higher temperatures, so they tend to selectively deposit out on heat-exchanger surfaces such as boiler tubes.
What it's supposed to do The purpose of MWT is of course to inhibit scale deposition; whether it can also "soften" the water in the sense of removing the ions of calcium and similar elements that form soap scum and leave deposits on evaporation is not clear.
Most descriptions of MWT don't claim to remove the hardness ions from the water as conventional ion-exchange softeners do. Most commonly the lime scale solids are said to either deposit in a loosely adherent flake-like form, or to precipitate as small particles within the water itself instead of on metal surfaces.
In either case, the precipitated material is carried along with the water. But I see two difficulties with this explanation: If particles are actually precipitated, it should be possible to observe them, either by direct collection in a micropore filter or indirectly by light-scattering methods nephthelometrybut there are no apparent reports of this.
Further, once the scale-forming particles are removed, the water should still contain at least saturation levels of the hardness ions, so the water would by no means be considered "soft"; one would expect the metal ions would still form scums with soap, and they could still form scale when the water evaporates or is boiled in teakettles, etc.
Another common claim is that MWT causes calcium carbonate to precipitate as aragonite, a crystalline modification of CaCO3 that is slightly less stable and more soluble than the much more common calcite structure. But it is not clear that the physical properties of aragonite differ all that much from those of calcite.
Permanent magnets and alternating electromagnetic fields Most of the permanent magnet devices employ a sequence of magnets, arranged so that the water passes alternately through magnetized and non-magnetized regions.
This is probably based on the experiments of Kronenberg see below who found that a sequence of magnets was more effective. The alternating-current devices can presumably duplicate this effect with a single coil as shown at the right. Some excite the coil with square waves rather than with sine waves in the apparent hope that of the large number of frequency components so generated, some will be more effective than others.
Instructions for building your own MWT device are available at this site which also sells magnets. This might make a nice Science Fair project! Can MWT control scale deposition?
Does it really soften the water? One might think that the question of whether magnetic water treatment is effective would by now have long been settled by scientific and engineering studies, but this is unfortunately not the case.
Most of the reports and there have been many of the successful use of MWT have been anecdotal and lacking in quantitative data and proper controls. Most scientists who have looked into MWT remain very skeptical, as they tend of be of any field for which there is no obvious theoretical model and in which quantitative and reproducible results are hard to come by.
A very similar situation arises in studies of whether power transmission lines contribute to leukemia. Scientists who might otherwise be qualified to investigate MWT also tend to be put off by the stigma the field has acquired due to the exaggerated claims made by some of its adherents and the widespread promotion of various worthless applications involving magnets.
Most water-treatment engineers who have investigated magnetic water treatment MWT in controlled industrial settings report negative results. Given the potential economic benefits of a widely-applicable chemical-free softening process, especially in arid regions such as the U.
Many of the reports supporting MWT seem to be in rather obscure journals and conference proceedings. This may in part reflect the fact that water treatment is far from being a "leading edge" science— despite its importance and the fact that much remains unknown about the mechanisms of precipitation and scale formation.This section contains resources on in-text citation and the Works Cited page, as well as MLA sample papers, slide presentations, and the MLA classroom poster Research Papers.
Writing a Research Paper; Genre and the Research Paper; Choosing a Topic; Citing Archival Resources; Digital Archives Materials; Using Research. For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th ed.
MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. The experiment: Say you have just conducted the Milgram plombier-nemours.com you want to write the research paper for it.
(Milgram actually waited two years before writing about his study.) Here's a shortened example of a research article that MIGHT have been written. News & Advocacy. AHA Announcements; AHA in the News.
Advertising in FNN; Statements and Resolutions of Support and Protest. Guiding Principles on Taking a Public Stance. Sample Papers in MLA Style The following two sample research papers are typical of the papers that might be submitted in different kinds of courses.
Reading these papers will help you learn about organizing an argument and working with sources. The Modern Languages Association (MLA) dictates citation for essays and papers in the humanities. Common sources writers cite include books and journal articles, but sometimes you may find yourself faced with citing a survey.