Countering insurgency essay contest

Edit The so-called kuruc were armed anti-Habsburg rebels in Royal Hungary between and If there is a rebellion against the authority for example an authority recognized as such by the United Nations and those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents then the rebellion is an insurgency.

Countering insurgency essay contest

Definition The so-called kuruc were armed anti- Habsburg rebels in Royal Hungary between and If there is a rebellion against the authority for example the United Nations and those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents then the rebellion is an insurgency.

For example, during the American Civil Warthe Confederate States of America was not recognized as a sovereign state, but it was recognized as a belligerent power, and thus Confederate warships were given the same rights as United States warships in foreign ports.

When insurgency is used to describe a movement's unlawfulness by virtue of not being authorized by or in accordance with the law of the land, its use Countering insurgency essay contest neutral.

However, when it is used by a state or another authority under threat, "insurgency" often also carries an implication that the rebels cause is illegitimate, whereas those Countering insurgency essay contest up will see the authority itself as being illegitimate.

The use of the term insurgency does recognize the political motivation of those who participate in an insurgency, while the term brigandry implies no political motivation.

If an uprising has little support for example those who continue to resist towards the end of an armed conflict when most of their allies have surrendered then such a resistance may be described as brigandry and those who participate as brigands.

The first is that international law traditionally does not encroach on matters that are solely the internal affairs of a sovereign state although recent developments such as the responsibility to protect is starting to undermine this traditional approach.

The second is because at the Hague Conference of there was disagreement between the Great Powers who considered francs-tireurs to be unlawful combatants subject to execution on capture and smaller states who maintained that they should be considered lawful combatants.

The dispute resulted in a compromise wording being included in the Hague Conventions known as the Martens Clause after the diplomat who drafted the clause. Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organized resistance movements, belonging to a Party to the conflict and operating in or outside their own territory, even if this territory is occupied, provided that such militias or volunteer corps, including such organized resistance movements Insurgency and its tactics are as old as warfare itself.

Joint doctrine defines an insurgency as an organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through the use of subversion and armed conflict. In addition, insurgency and COIN are included within a broad category of conflict known as irregular warfare.

This definition does not consider the morality of the conflict, or the different viewpoints of the government and the insurgents.

It is focused more on the operational aspects of the types of actions taken by the insurgents and the counter-insurgents.

The Department of Defense's DOD definition focuses on the type of violence employed unlawful towards specified ends political, religious or ideological. This characterization fails to address the argument from moral relativity that "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter.

Morris [15] The French expert on Indochina and Vietnam, Bernard Fallwho wrote Street Without Joy[16] said that "revolutionary warfare" guerrilla warfare plus political action might be a more accurate term to describe small wars such as insurgencies.

Under the British, the situation in Malaya now Malaysia was often called the "Malayan insurgency" [18] or "the Troubles" in Northern Ireland.

North points out, however, that insurgents today need not be part of a highly organized movement: Some are networked with only loose objectives and mission-type orders to enhance their survival. Most are divided and factionalized by area, composition, or goals. Strike one against the current definition of insurgency.

It is not relevant to the enemies we face today. Many of these enemies do not currently seek the overthrow of a constituted government In a article, Robert R.

Tomes spoke of four elements that "typically encompass an insurgency": For example, the French Revolution had no cell system, and in the American Revolutionlittle to no attempt was made to terrorize civilians.

In consecutive coups in and in Pakistan, the initial actions focused internally on the government rather than on seeking broad support. While Tomes' definition fits well with Mao's Phase I, [22] it does not deal well with larger civil wars.

Mao does assume terrorism is usually part of the early phases, but it is not always present in revolutionary insurgency. Tomes offers an indirect definition of insurgency, drawn from Trinquier 's definition of counterinsurgency: Several insurgencies may belong to more complex conflicts, involving "third forces armed groups which affect the outcome, such as militias and fourth forces unarmed groups which affect the outcome, such as international mediawho may be distinct from the core insurgents and the recognized government.

While overt state sponsorship becomes less common, sponsorship by transnational groups is more common. Metz suggests that contemporary insurgencies have far more complex and shifting participation than traditional wars, where discrete belligerents seek a clear strategic victory.

Terrorism All insurgencies include terrorism, with the caveat that there is no universally accepted definition of terrorism. While there is no accepted definition in international law, United Nations -sponsored working definitions include one drafted by Alex P.

Reporting to the Secretary-General inthe Working Group stated the following: Without attempting a comprehensive definition of terrorism, it would be useful to delineate some broad characteristics of the phenomenon.

Terrorism is, in most cases, essentially a political act. It is meant to inflict dramatic and deadly injury on civilians and to create an atmosphere of fear, generally for a political or ideological whether secular or religious purpose. Terrorism is a criminal act, but it is more than mere criminality.

Stabilization and the Problem of Insurgency | Beyond Intractability

To overcome the problem of terrorism it is necessary to understand its political nature as well as its basic criminality and psychology.The winning essay of the 24th Annual United States Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Strategic Essay Contest, by Michael F.

Morris, said [A pure terrorist group] "may pursue political, even revolutionary, ↑ Kilcullen, David (), Countering Global Insurgency.

Regardless of its strategic approach, insurgency is a violent state-building project; i.e. construction of a new world, or counter-state, to challenge the existing world, normally embodied in a state or states.

2 2. See Marks, “Counterinsurgency in the Age of Globalism,” 22–9. Countering the al-Shabaab Insurgency in Somalia: Lessons for U.S. Special Operations Forces The Use of Special Operations Forces in Support of American Strategic Security Strategies, Essay Contest .

- “The hearts and mind (HAM) theory is identified as winning the hearts and minds of the population which is a technique based on the implementation of the counter-insurgency (COIN) strategy of persuading the population to support the government and reject the insurgents.”.

The Intelligence Role in Counterinsurgency, Walter Steinmeyer. Experience during the past decade in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Indochina, the Congo, and other such hot spots has been variegated enough to provide some ground for generalizing about the role an intelligence agency should play in the U.S.

effort to combat "wars. of national liberation.". The War on Terrorism: Countering Global Insurgency in the 21st Century by James A. Bates.

Countering insurgency essay contest

This paper adds to the growing debate concerning the challenges of the United States strategic engagement strategy and recommends options for the emerging 21st Century.

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