If you want to practice psychology in a clinical setting, teach at a university, or conduct research, you have to complete a doctoral degree in psychology. Despite a similar educational path, some psychologists are better suited for certain positions and career paths than others. The career path a psychologist pursues is often determined by personality type or simply by preferred area of practice. Psychology graduates seeking job opportunities should expect, and be prepared to answer, a wide variety of interview questions relating to their specific strengths, areas of expertise and career aspirations.
Felony and Misdemeanor A principle often mentioned with respect to the degree of punishment to be meted out is that the punishment should match the crime. Measurements of the degree of seriousness of a crime have been developed. Criminal justice There are many possible reasons that might be given to justify or explain why someone ought to be punished; here follows a broad outline of typical, possibly conflicting, justifications.
Deterrence prevention [ edit ] One reason given to justify punishment  is that it is a measure to prevent people from committing an offence - deterring previous offenders from re-offending, and preventing those who may be contemplating an offence they have not committed from actually committing it.
This punishment is intended to be sufficient that people would choose not to commit the crime rather than experience the punishment. The aim is to deter everyone in the community from committing offences.
Some criminologists state that the number of people convicted for crime does not decrease as a result of more severe punishment and conclude that deterrence is ineffective.
These criminologists therefore argue that lack of deterring effect of increasing the sentences for already severely punished crimes say nothing about the significance of the existence of punishment as a deterring factor.
These criminologists argue that the use of statistics to gauge the efficiency of crime fighting methods are a danger of creating a reward hack that makes the least efficient criminal justice systems appear to be best at fighting crime, and that the appearance of deterrance being ineffective may be an example of this.
Rehabilitation penology Some punishment includes work to reform and rehabilitate the culprit so that they will not commit the offence again. Imprisonment separates offenders from the community, removing or reducing their ability to carry out certain crimes. The death penalty does this in a permanent and irrevocable way.
In some societies, people who stole have been punished by having their hands amputated.
Retributive justice Criminal activities typically give a benefit to the offender and a loss to the victim. Punishment has been justified as a measure of retributive justice in which the goal is to try to rebalance any unjust advantage gained by ensuring that the offender also suffers a loss.
Sometimes viewed as a way of "getting even" with a wrongdoer—the suffering of the wrongdoer is seen as a desired goal in itself, even if it has no restorative benefits for the victim.
One reason societies have administered punishments is to diminish the perceived need for retaliatory "street justice", blood feudand vigilantism. Restorative justice For minor offenses, punishment may take the form of the offender "righting the wrong", or making restitution to the victim.
Community service or compensation orders are examples of this sort of penalty. Punishment can serve as a means for society to publicly express denunciation of an action as being criminal. Besides educating people regarding what is not acceptable behavior, it serves the dual function of preventing vigilante justice by acknowledging public anger, while concurrently deterring future criminal activity by stigmatizing the offender.
This is sometimes called the "Expressive Theory" of denunciation. The critics argue that some individuals spending time and energy and taking risks in punishing others, and the possible loss of the punished group members, would have been selected against if punishment served no function other than signals that could evolve to work by less risky means.
Instead of punishment requiring we choose between them, unified theorists argue that they work together as part of some wider goal such as the protection of rights. Detractors argue that punishment is simply wrong, of the same design as " two wrongs make a right ".
Critics argue that punishment is simply revenge. Retribution, Crime Prevention, and the Law, states in her book that, We ought not to impose such harm on anyone unless we have a very good reason for doing so.
This remark may seem trivially true, but the history of humankind is littered with examples of the deliberate infliction of harm by well-intentioned persons in the vain pursuit of ends which that harm did not further, or in the successful pursuit of questionable ends.
These benefactors of humanity sacrificed their fellows to appease mythical gods and tortured them to save their souls from a mythical hell, broke and bound the feet of children to promote their eventual marriageability, beat slow schoolchildren to promote learning and respect for teachers, subjected the sick to leeches to rid them of excess blood, and put suspects to the rack and the thumbscrew in the service of truth.
They schooled themselves to feel no pity—to renounce human compassion in the service of a higher end.Interview questions. A free inside look at Educational psychology interview questions and process details for other companies - all posted anonymously by interview candidates Assistant Professor of Educational Psychology at University of Northern Iowa was asked Jun 1, Welcome to the official Stanford Prison Experiment website, which features extensive information about a classic psychology experiment that inspired an award-winning movie, New York Times bestseller, and documentary DVD.
The Jung Page provides a wealth of educational resources related to C.G. Jung and depth psychology. Carol S. Dweck (born October 17, ) is the Lewis and Virginia Eaton Professor of Psychology at Stanford University.
Dweck is known for her work on the mindset psychological trait. She has taught at Columbia University, Harvard University, and the University of Illinois before joining the Stanford University faculty in Media Contacts are available to answer media inquiries about their research or other areas of expertise.
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