Factors affecting physical properties of organic compounds

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Factors affecting physical properties of organic compounds

Parent materials are classified according to how they came to be deposited.

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Residual materials are mineral materials that have weathered in place from primary bedrock. Transported materials are those that have been deposited by water, wind, ice or gravity.

Cumulose material is organic matter that has grown and accumulates in place. Residual soils are soils that develop from their underlying parent rocks and have the same general chemistry as those rocks. The soils found on mesas, plateaux, and plains are residual soils.

In the United States as little as three percent of the soils are residual. Aeolian processes movement by wind are capable of moving silt and fine sand many hundreds of miles, forming loess soils 60—90 percent silt[80] common in the Midwest of North America, north-western Europe, Argentina and Central Asia.

Clay is seldom moved by wind as it forms stable aggregates. Water-transported materials are classed as either alluvial, lacustrine, or marine.

Factors affecting physical properties of organic compounds

Alluvial materials are those moved and deposited by flowing water. Sedimentary deposits settled in lakes are called lacustrine. Marine deposits, such as soils along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts and in the Imperial Valley of California of the United States, are the beds of ancient seas that have been revealed as the land uplifted.

Ice moves parent material and makes deposits in the form of terminal and lateral moraines in the case of stationary Factors affecting physical properties of organic compounds.

Retreating glaciers leave smoother ground moraines and in all cases, outwash plains are left as alluvial deposits are moved downstream from the glacier. Parent material moved by gravity is obvious at the base of steep slopes as talus cones and is called colluvial material.

Cumulose parent material is not moved but originates from deposited organic material. This includes peat and muck soils and results from preservation of plant residues by the low oxygen content of a high water table.

While peat may form sterile soils, muck soils may be very fertile. Weathering[ edit ] The weathering of parent material takes the form of physical weathering disintegrationchemical weathering decomposition and chemical transformation.

Rocks that will decompose in a few years in tropical climates will remain unaltered for millennia in deserts. Chemical weathering mainly results from the excretion of organic acids and chelating compounds by bacteria [82] and fungi, [83] thought to increase under present-day greenhouse effect.

Manganese And Its Compounds:Environmental Aspects (Cicads 63, )

Temperature fluctuations cause expansion and contraction of the rock, splitting it along lines of weakness. Water may then enter the cracks and freeze and cause the physical splitting of material along a path toward the center of the rock, while temperature gradients within the rock can cause exfoliation of "shells".

Cycles of wetting and drying cause soil particles to be abraded to a finer size, as does the physical rubbing of material as it is moved by wind, water, and gravity. Water can deposit within rocks minerals that expand upon drying, thereby stressing the rock.

Finally, organisms reduce parent material in size and create crevices and pores through the mechanical action of plant roots and the digging activity of animals. The first three of the following list are solubility changes and the last three are structural changes. This results in soluble acid-base pairs.

For example, the hydrolysis of orthoclase - feldspar transforms it to acid silicate clay and basic potassium hydroxideboth of which are more soluble. Carbonic acid will transform calcite into more soluble calcium bicarbonate.

The reduction of minerals leaves them electrically unstable, more soluble and internally stressed and easily decomposed.

Chemical and physical properties

It mainly occurs in waterlogged conditions. Often called [weathered granite], saprolite is the result of weathering processes that include: The mineralogical and chemical composition of the primary bedrock material, its physical features, including grain size and degree of consolidation, and the rate and type of weathering transforms the parent material into a different mineral.

The texture, pH and mineral constituents of saprolite are inherited from its parent material. This process is also called arenization, resulting in the formation of sandy soils granitic arenasthanks to the much higher resistance of quartz compared to other mineral components of granite micasamphibolesfeldspars.

Temperature and moisture both influence the organic matter content of soil through their effects on the balance between primary production and decomposition: According to the climatic determination of biomeshumid climates favor the growth of trees.

In contrast, grasses are the dominant native vegetation in subhumid and semiarid regions, while shrubs and brush of various kinds dominate in arid areas. To be effective in soil formation, water must penetrate the regolith.

The seasonal rainfall distribution, evaporative losses, site topographyand soil permeability interact to determine how effectively precipitation can influence soil formation. The greater the depth of water penetration, the greater the depth of weathering of the soil and its development.

Surplus water percolating through the soil profile transports soluble and suspended materials from the upper layers eluviation to the lower layers illuviationincluding clay particles [] and dissolved organic matter.Biochar consists of (i) stable or fixed carbon, (ii) labile carbon and other volatile compounds, (iii) moisture, and (iv) ash components.

An overview of the characteristics of biochar derived from different sources of biomass is detailed in Table plombier-nemours.com the carbon found in most organic matter, the chemical environment of the carbon in biochar is altered during the heating process to produce.

This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization, or the World Health Organization.

When different kinds of oil enter the sea, many physical, chemical and biological degradation processes start acting on them. Physical Properties of Organic Compounds Introduction The main factors which affect melting points are the molecular weight and the polarity of the molecule, but they can also be influenced by the symmetry of the molecule (how well it packs into a crystal lattice).

Familial adenomatous polyposis a hereditary syndrome characterized by the formation of many polyps in the colon and rectum, some of which may develop into colorectal cancer. Fatty acid an organic acid molecule consisting of a chain of carbon molecules and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) group.

(Click Here for Director's Choice Ideas) Here are just a few ideas that I have collected over time and from the Internet. Possibly some of these will get you going in the right direction on your project.

19 TAC Chapter , Subchapter C