Overview[ edit ] Fig. Wineglass model for IMRaD structure.
Overview[ edit ] Fig. Wineglass model for IMRaD structure. The above scheme schematically shows how to line up the information in IMRaD writing. It has two characteristics, first one is "top-bottom symmetric shape", second one is "change of width", that means "the top is wide and it narrows towards the middle, and then widens again as it goes down toward the bottom".
First one, "top-bottom symmetric shape" represents the symmetry of the story development. Second one, the change of the width of above diagram, represents the change of generality of the viewpoint. Original research articles are typically structured in this basic order    Introduction — Why was the study undertaken?
What was the research questionthe tested hypothesis or the purpose of the research? Methods — When, where, and how was the study done? What materials were used or who was included in the study groups patients, etc.
Results — What answer was found to the research question; what did the study find? Was the tested hypothesis true?
Discussion — What might the answer imply and why does it matter? How does it fit in with what other researchers have found? What are the perspectives for future research? The plot and the flow of the story of IMRaD is style writing are explained by a 'wine glass model'  or hourglass model.
In this sense, to explain how to line up the information in IMRaD writing, the 'wine glass model' see the pattern diagram shown in Fig.
As mentioned in abovementioned textbook,  the scheme of 'wine glass model' have two characteristic. First one is "top-bottom symmetric shape" and Second one is "changing width" i.
The First one, "top-bottom symmetric shape", represents the symmetry of the story development. Note the shape of the top trapezoid representing the structure of Introduction and the shape of the trapezoid at the bottom are reversed.
See the relationship between abovementioned ab and ef.
The Second one, "the change of the width" of the schema shown in Fig.C1 Advanced, previously known as Cambridge English: Advanced and the Certificate in Advanced English (CAE), is an English language examination provided by Cambridge Assessment English (previously known as Cambridge English Language Assessment and University of Cambridge ESOL examination)..
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In scientific writing, IMRAD or IMRaD (/ ˈ ɪ m r æ d /) (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) is a common organizational structure (a document format).IMRaD is the most prominent norm for the structure of a scientific journal article of the original research type.