Periodisation In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandfrom her accession on 20 June —after the death of her uncle, William IV —until her death on 22 Januaryafter which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for 63 years and seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors. The term 'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have also created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have also been defences of it.
Scrooge, an ageing miserdislikes Christmas and refuses a dinner invitation from his nephew Fred—the son of Fan, Scrooge's dead sister. He turns away two men who seek a donation from him to provide food and heating for the poor, and only grudgingly allows his overworked, underpaid clerkBob CratchitChristmas Day off with pay to conform to the social custom.
That night Scrooge is visited at home by Marley's ghost, who wanders the Earth entwined by heavy chains and money boxes forged during a lifetime of greed and selfishness. Marley tells Scrooge that he has a single chance to avoid the same fate: Stave two[ edit ] The first spirit, the Ghost of Christmas Pasttakes Scrooge to Christmas scenes of Scrooge's boyhood, reminding him of a time when he was more innocent.
The scenes reveal Scrooge's lonely childhood at boarding schoolhis relationship with his beloved sister Fan, and a Christmas party hosted by his first employer, Mr Fezziwigwho treated him like a son. Finally, they visit a now-married Belle with her large, happy family on the Christmas Eve that Marley died.
Scrooge, upset by hearing Belle's description of the man that he has become, demands that the ghost remove him from the house.
Stave three[ edit ] The second spirit, the Ghost of Christmas Presenttakes Scrooge to a joyous market with people buying the makings of Christmas dinner and to celebrations of Christmas in a miner's cottage and in a lighthouse.
Scrooge and the ghost also visit Fred's Christmas party. A major part of this stave is taken up with Bob Cratchit's family feast and introduces his youngest son, Tiny Tima happy boy who is seriously ill.
The spirit informs Scrooge that Tiny Tim will die unless the course of events changes. Before disappearing, the spirit shows Scrooge two hideous, emaciated children named Ignorance and Want. He tells Scrooge to beware the former above all and mocks Scrooge's concern for their welfare.
Stave four[ edit ] Scrooge and Bob Cratchit celebrate Christmas in an illustration from stave five of the original edition, The silent ghost reveals scenes involving the death of a disliked man whose funeral is attended by local businessmen only on condition that lunch is provided.
His charwomanlaundress and the local undertaker steal his possessions to sell to a fence. When he asks the spirit to show a single person who feels emotion over his death, he is only given the pleasure of a poor couple who rejoice that his death gives them more time to put their finances in order.
When Scrooge asks to see tenderness connected with any death, the ghost shows him Bob Cratchit and his family mourning the death of Tiny Tim. The ghost then allows Scrooge to see a neglected grave, with a tombstone bearing Scrooge's name.
Sobbing, Scrooge pledges to change his ways. Stave five[ edit ] Scrooge awakens on Christmas morning a changed man. He spends the afternoon with Fred's family and anonymously sends a large turkey to the Cratchit home for Christmas dinner.
The following day he gives Cratchit an increase in pay and becomes a father figure to Tiny Tim. From then on Scrooge begins to treat everyone with kindness, generosity and compassion, embodying the spirit of Christmas.
Background[ edit ] Dickens at the blacking warehouse, as envisioned by Fred Barnard The writer Charles Dickens was born to a middle class family which got into financial difficulties as a result of the spendthrift nature of his father John.
In John was committed to the Marshalseaa debtors' prison in SouthwarkLondon. Dickens, aged 12, was forced to pawn his collection of books, leave school and work at a dirty and rat-infested shoe-blacking factory. The change in circumstances gave him what his biographer, Michael Slater, describes as a "deep personal and social outrage", which heavily influenced his writing and outlook.
Their practice was copied in many homes across the country. In the episode, a Mr Wardle relates the tale of Gabriel Grub, a lonely and mean-spirited sextonwho undergoes a Christmas conversion after being visited by goblins who show him the past and future.
It was a parliamentary report exposing the effects of the Industrial Revolution upon working class children. Horrified by what he read, Dickens planned to publish an inexpensive political pamphlet tentatively titled, An Appeal to the People of England, on behalf of the Poor Man's Child, but changed his mind, deferring the pamphlet's production until the end of the year.
Sales of Martin Chuzzlewit were falling off, and his wife, Catherinewas pregnant with their fifth child. By 24 October Dickens invited Leech to work on A Christmas Carol, and four hand-coloured etchings and four black-and-white wood engravings by the artist accompanied the text.
This psychological conflict may be responsible for the two radically different Scrooges in the tale—one a cold, stingy and greedy semi-recluse, the other a benevolent, sociable man.
Elwell, Scrooge's views on the poor are a reflection of those of the demographer and political economist Thomas Malthus while the miser's questions "Are there no prisons? And the Union workhouses? The treadmill and the Poor Law are in full vigour, then?
Peter AckroydDickens's biographer, sees similarities between the character and the elder Martin Chuzzlewit character, although the miser is "a more fantastic image" than the Chuzzlewit patriarch; Ackroyd observes that Chuzzlewit's transformation to a charitable figure is a parallel to that of the miser.
The grave was for Ebenezer Lennox Scroggie, whose job was given as a meal man—a corn merchant; Dickens misread the inscription as "mean man". Jordan argues that A Christmas Carol shows what Dickens referred to in a letter to Foster as his "Carol philosophy, cheerful views, sharp anatomisation of humbug, jolly good temper The first printing contained drab olive endpapers that Dickens felt were unacceptable, and the publisher Chapman and Hall quickly replaced them with yellow endpapers, but, once replaced, those clashed with the title page, which was then redone.Find all the books, read about the author, and more.
A Christmas Carol. In Prose. Being a Ghost Story of Christmas, commonly known as A Christmas Carol, is a novella by Charles Dickens, first published in London by Chapman & Hall in and illustrated by John Leech.
A Christmas Carol recounts the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an elderly miser who is visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the spirits of Christmas . "A book that is a pleasure to read and that provides a well-informed, wide-ranging, and intelligent social history of medicine for the general or student reader.
L.A. Times entertainment news from Hollywood including event coverage, celebrity gossip and deals. View photo galleries, read TV and movie reviews and more. Health, Medicine, and Society in Victorian England (Victorian Life and Times): Medicine & Health Science Books @ plombier-nemours.com Adele has gone from being a teenage girl singing to her mates, to the biggest-selling recording artist of the 21st Century.