Research paper assertiveness

It is also an ability to communicate directly using language that is to the point, taking initiative, focusing on solutions, addressing problems, taking ownership of problems, and bringing the problems to a close. Assertiveness can also mean being firm, patient, persistent, pushing someone into action, encouraging, and not compromising on the solution to the problem. Assertiveness requires flexibility tailored to the individual and the situation they are placed in. People usually have three obstacles that keep them from being assertive.

Research paper assertiveness

By Amanda Schaffer Try talking about whether single sex education is better for boys, or why there aren't more female science professors at Harvard, or whether male financiers are innately more aggressive, and sooner or later someone will evoke that handy, biological explanation of sex difference: The usual argument is that early hormonal exposures mold "male" and "female" minds.

That is, a prenatal marinade helps shape men and women's later sexual desires, intellectual talents, personality Research paper assertiveness and career interests—in ways that typically differ by gender.

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A loud chorus of researchers and popular writers, including psychologists Simon Baron-Cohen, Susan Pinker and Steven Pinker, psychiatrist Louann Brizendine, and therapist Michael Gurian, frequently invoke prenatal hormones to explain male and female behavior.

At first glance, the science seems to offer strong backup: Hundreds of articles report a relationship between prenatal hormone levels and, say, which toys girls and boys like as kids or how aggressive they are or how easily they can mentally rotate objects or when they're a bit older how much they masturbate.

The usual assumption is that since males have more prenatal T, and Research paper assertiveness is the male hormone, of course it must explain the hallmarks of maleness in the mind.

This view sucks up a lot of oxygen, and it takes painstaking effort to refute it. I tried to in a Slate series on psychological sex differences that sent me deep into the weeds for months. Every writer I know who's taken on this literature shudders a little at the memory.

So it was with appreciation verging on glee that I read Barnard professor Rebecca Jordan-Young's devastatingly smart and definitive critique: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences. Jordan-Young argues that the science of prenatal hormones, gender, and the mind "better resembles a hodgepodge pile than a solid structure.

Advertisement An expert on measures and study designs, Jordan-Young has spent the last 13 years combing the literature on brain organization, unpacking assumptions, questioning methods and statistical practices, holding one paper up against another.

She stresses that fetal hormones must matter to the brain—somehow. But after picking apart more than studies that try to understand the genesis of particular psychological sex differences real or supposedshe concludes that fetal T looks like an awfully anemic explanation.

Prenatal hormones are, indisputably, important to genital development.

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But the more controversial question has always been whether the mind is also shaped in categorically "male" or "female" ways, by testosterone or estrogen. For decades, a series of researchers have doggedly tried to prove that it is, treating the brain as an "accessory reproductive organ," as Jordan-Young writes.

This presumption has led to some strange contortions and flip-flopping. In the early s, for instance, one study reported that boys whose mothers took a synthetic estrogen, which was thought to prevent complications in pregnancy, tended later on to show less masculine behavior like lower assertiveness or aggression.

Soon, however, animal research found that testosterone converted to estrogen in the brain actually seems to do the opposite—to make boys act more typically masculine.

And soon after that, the reversal showed up in human research, too: Another study suggested that boys exposed prenatally to a synthetic estrogen might show more masculine behavior, according to Jordan-Young.

The data on synthetic estrogen and progesterone exposures are complicated. But what's striking, in Jordan-Young's telling, is that the researchers' findings tended to dovetail suspiciously well with their assumptions.

The red flags only multiply as Jordan-Young compares more-recent results. Of course, scientists cannot go in and vary prenatal exposure to hormones and then see what happens in a controlled experiment.

Nor can they measure anything directly in the fetal brain. Instead, they must rely on "quasi-experiments" and proxy variables for hormone levels. This puts particular pressure on how well different findings fit together, Jordan-Young argues. To take one example: The only problem is that Hines found her link for girls but not for boys.

On some measures, Baron-Cohen has found a relationship just for boys and on other measures for boys and girls taken together. For play behavior, he reports no link with T levels for either gender. So it's hard to put these projects together and come up with a consistent story.

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Instead, it's a mishmash. Advertisement Research on people with intersex disorders comes in for similar needed scrutiny. A large number of studies look at women and girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasiaa genetic disorder that involves the overproduction of androgens like testosterone.

Because these females' hormonal exposures are closer to males', the theory is their behaviors and interests ought to tend toward the "masculine" as well.

And in fact, some data suggest that CAH females may be more likely than their sisters to play with vehicles and construction-related toys as children. They may be "less likely to prioritize marriage and motherhood over career," writes Jordan-Young.

Also, they may be more likely to express an interest in male-dominated careers like engineer and airline pilot.Assertiveness Personality Essays - Being Assertive.

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Being Assertive Essays. Length: words ( double-spaced pages) Rating: Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper. Need Writing Help?

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Research paper assertiveness

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Tuesdays I will occasionally feature “How-To(sday)” posts, short guides to certain genres of academic writing. I’m happy to take requests for these. Just email me at [email protected] Today we look at the paper/conference proposal abstract. This is a critical genre of writing for.

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Based on data from a variety of sources, it can be a valuable tool for HR practitioners and managers who need to make the case in their own organizations.

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