How to Write a Summary of an Article? Hawthorne Effect and Human Relation Movement Describe how the components of the Hawthorne study are incorporated in current human resource functions? What was the main idea behind this study?
This paper will examine this period, and four of the spiritual developments representative of the Axial Age, Greek Philosophy in Ancient Greece, Confucianism in China, Monotheism in Israel, and, in particular, Buddhism and the Buddha in India. The Axial Age and its Characteristics: In "Buddha," Armstrong sets the context of the Buddha's life, and its impact on subcontinent India, during a time when great transformative religions appeared, not only in India, but also simultaneously in Term paper for human relation, Greece, Iran and Palestine.
The way the thoughts and ideals of these prophets and sages developed, and then permeated human society, remains with us still, in the root foundations of the great religions of today Armstrong, p Traditional religion was no longer speaking to people whose experience of suffering in these core territories seems to have reached a climatic level p Some historians suggest that the invasions of the nomadic, Indo-European, horseman was one common factor in these territories p Eventually they made their way to China p They brought to these predominately agrarian cultures, "a sense of vast horizons and limitless possibilities and, as a 'master race,' they replaced the old stable, more primitive communities after a period of 'intense conflict" and distress," which Armstrong believes may partially account for the Axial Age's discontent and overall "malaise" p The Aryan culture also brought innovative ideas, particularly in the marketplace, which had attained a new centrality by the sixth century BCE p Power was passing to a new class of merchants who were developing a much more flexible economy p This market economy began to undermine the status quo, and merchants no longer deferred to the aristocracy.
This new urban class valued self-reliance and was determined to take their fate into their own hands p Traditional values were wearing away, the familiar way of life was disappearing, and a new order was developing, that was both frightening and exhilarating p Out of this pivotal period, religious leaders and sages began to develop a comprehensive "world view," of human nature no longer tied to any particular group.
They also argued that the main task was to "remake present reality," corrupt and imperfect as it was, to be in harmony with a higher moral order.
Further, the religious leaders' legitimacy was no longer dependent on political or kinship ties but on the individuals' own qualifications and ability to reflect or model the ideals, they were espousing. All of these cultures, Greece, India, China, Iran, and Palestine, experienced a "different" world where the security of traditional ways was fracturing and filled with "struggle," p 11 but was ripe with opportunity.
This Axial period also marks a time when human beings became convinced that it was necessary to "turn away" from a violent, suffering world and seek the answers from a more "absolute" or higher truth they could only find within themselves p In Greece, spirituality and philosophy flourished as the Mycenaean kingdom gave way to the Macedonian empire.
The brutality of the Peloponnesian War and the tradition of vengeance gave way to a different kind of world viewforged by Socrates, who argued that retaliation was always unjust and that the key to enlightenment was in acting with virtue and patience with friend and enemy alike, a kind of equanimity similarly espoused by the Buddha.
This was a radical change from the Homeric, warrior values of the past. The two lines of thinking that emerged from the Greek Axial Age, i.
The Greeks transcendental, higher vision developed into a proto-scientific exploration of the cosmos, where nature and consciousness became the subject and where "to reason," and question self-evident truths, became a vehicle to reach a higher moral ideal.
But the practical change that came out of these speculations was grounded more in a social political vision of human nature rather than an "other-worldly" one; an ideal of a higher moral order as displayed in "justice" in the social political order.
This was unique to Greek thought. China, in contrast, developed no thought of a shared responsibility of its citizens for political ordering, as they could not conceive of any idea of order without a monarchy.
The early Confucian masters were not concerned with cosmology or new political configurations. Confucians saw their salvation in developing internal peace, by fostering an already existing "inner goodness" through self-discipline and education in adhering to an established norm.
What was radical about this for the Chinese was that everyone could achieve this higher moral order or basic goodness, not just the nobles. The record of the past, and respect again for the ancestors, could be a guide for people to find the right patterns to follow.
In fact, to achieve true nobility one needed to develop this "inner goodness" and to consciously examine and foster the ancient ideals For the Jewish Prophets of Israel, the Axial Age was a time of newer, more fluid boundaries, politically, socially and economically, and an emergence of a monotheistic concept of a transcendent God who created the Universe and imposed His will and law upon it.
It was a God of many nations, but who recognized the Israelites as the "chosen people" with whom a special covenant had been formed.Even though "Human Relations Research Paper" is far from my studies, the structure is so great that I use it all the time as an example for my own works.
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International relation is a part of international system whereby its concern on the relationship among the world’s government involving the state actors and non-state actors. There are many theories used to explain international relation particularly in their own way such as in Realism, Liberalism, Constructivism, Marxism and etc.