American Psychological Association Course Correction: Johannes Jacobse 15 Comments In what could be called a stunning reversal, Dr.
In addition, a growing body of research has documented associations between social and cultural factors and health Berkman and Kawachi, ; Marmot and Wilkinson, For some types of social variables, such as socioeconomic status SES or poverty, robust evidence of their links to health has existed since the beginning of official record keeping.
For other kinds of variables—such as social networks and social support or job stress—evidence of their links to health has accumulated over the past 30 years.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the social variables that have been researched as inputs to health the so-called social determinants of healthas well as to describe approaches to their measurement and the empirical evidence linking each variable to health outcomes.
It should be emphasized at the outset that the social determinants of health can be conceptualized as influencing health at multiple levels throughout the life course.
Thus, for example, poverty can be conceptualized as an exposure influencing the health of individuals at different levels of organization—within families or within the neighborhoods in which individuals reside.
Moreover, these different levels of influence may co-occur and interact with one another to produce health. For example, the detrimental health impact of growing up in a poor family may be potentiated if that family also happens to reside in a disadvantaged community where other families are poor rather than in a middle-class community.
Furthermore, poverty may differentially and independently affect the health of an individual at different stages of the life course e.
In short, the influence of social and cultural variables on health involves dimensions of both time critical stages in the life course and the effects of cumulative exposure as well as place multiple levels of exposure. The contexts in which social and cultural variables operate to influence health outcomes are called, generically, the social and cultural environment.
Comprehensive surveys of current areas of research in the social determinants of health can be found in existing textbooks Marmot and Wilkinson, ; Berkman and Kawachi, These variables are highlighted because of their robust associations with health status and their well-documented and reliable methods of measuring these variables, and because there are good reasons to believe that these variables interact with both behavioral as well as inherited characteristics to influence health.
Socioeconomic differences in health are large, persistent, and widespread across different societies and for a diverse range of health outcomes. In the social sciences, SES has been measured by three different indicators, taken either separately or in combination: Although these measures are moderately correlated, each captures distinctive aspects of social position, and each potentially is related to health and health behaviors through distinct mechanisms.
Educational Attainment Education is usually assessed by the use of two standard questions that ask about the number of years of schooling completed and the educational credentials gained.
The quality of education also may be relevant to health, but it is more difficult to assess accurately. An extensive literature has linked education to health outcomes, including mortality, morbidity, health behaviors, and functional limitations.
The relationship between lower educational attainment and worse health outcomes occurs throughout the life course. For example, infants born to Caucasian mothers with fewer than 12 years of schooling are 2. An association between education and health in observational data does not necessarily imply causation.
Alternatively, the association between education and health may partly reflect confounding by a third variable, such as ability, which is a prior common cause of both educational attainment and health status. The totality of the evidence suggests, nonetheless, that education is a causal variable in improving health.
Natural policy experiments—such as the passage of compulsory schooling legislation at different times in different localities within the United States—suggest that higher levels of education are associated with better health lower mortality Lleras-Muney, It is therefore likely that the association between schooling and health reflects both a causal effect of education on health, as well as an interaction between the level of schooling and inherited characteristics.
Several causal pathways have been hypothesized through which higher levels of schooling can improve health outcomes. They include the acquisition of knowledge and skills that promote health e. Although it is not established which of these pathways matter more for health, they each are likely to contribute to the overall pattern of higher years of schooling being associated with better health status.
Moreover, the evidence points to the importance of improving access to preschool education as a means of enhancing the health prospects of disadvantaged children Acheson, Income The measurement of income is more complex than assessing educational attainment.
Survey-based questions inquiring about income must minimally specify the following components: In addition to the higher rate of measurement error for income as compared to educational attainmentthis variable also is associated with higher refusal rates in surveys that are administered to the general population.
As with education, an extensive literature has documented the association between income and health. For example, even after controlling for educational attainment and occupational status, post-tax family income was associated with a 3.
That is, the excess risks of poor health are not confined simply to individuals below the official poverty threshold of income. That is, the relationship between the two variables is acknowledged to be dynamic and reciprocal.
Ill health is a potent cause of job loss and reduction in income. Indeed, income as an indicator of SES is more susceptible to reverse causation than education, which tends to be completed in early adult life prior to the onset of major causes of morbidity and functional limitations.
For example, children do not normally contribute to household incomes, yet their health is strongly associated with levels of household income in both the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the National Health Interview Surveys Case et al. An alternative possibility is that the relationship between income and health is explained by a third variable—such as inherited ability—that is associated with both socioeconomic mobility and the adoption of health maintenance behaviors.[Content warning: Politics, religion, social justice, spoilers for “The Secret of Father Brown”.
This isn’t especially original to me and I don’t claim anything more than to be explaining and rewording things I have heard from a bunch of other people. In the following I will analyse some of these factors. Personal beliefs Essay Plan Introduction (approx.
words) Define Psychological factors Structure of essay Main Body (approx.
words) psychological, and cultural domains, and their interactions” (Axia College, A Consumers Buyer Behaviour Is Influenced By Four Major Factors; Cultural, Social, Personal, And Psychological A consumers buyer behavior is influenced by four major factors; cultural, social, personal, and psychological factors.
Social and Political Recognition. Acts of recognition infuse many aspects of our lives such as receiving a round of applause from a rapt audience, being spotted in a crowded street by a long-forgotten friend, having an application for a job rejected because of your criminal record, enjoying some words of praise by a respected philosophy professor, getting pulled over by the police because you.
1 Cultural Factors These factors are the most influential when it comes to a person’s behavior. Our desires and actions are usually dictated by the culture we are exposed to when we are a still a child (Bowens, Kotler & Makens ).
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